Related Pages
Ma 1 abc
Calculus of One and Several Variables and Linear Algebra
9 units (405)

first, second, third terms
Prerequisites: highschool algebra, trigonometry, and calculus. Special section of Ma 1 a, 12 units (507).
Review of calculus. Complex numbers, Taylor polynomials, infinite series. Comprehensive presentation of linear algebra. Derivatives of vector functions, multiple integrals, line and path integrals, theorems of Green and Stokes. Ma 1 b, c is divided into two tracks: analytic and practical. Students will be given information helping them to choose a track at the end of the fall term. There will be a special section or sections of Ma 1 a for those students who, because of their background, require more calculus than is provided in the regular Ma 1 a sequence. These students will not learn series in Ma 1 a and will be required to take Ma 1 d.
Instructors:
Marx, Katz, Mantovan, Aschbacher, Ni, Kechris
Ma 1 d
Series
5 units (203)

second term only
Prerequisites: special section of Ma 1 a.
This is a course intended for those students in the special calculusintensive sections of Ma 1 a who did not have complex numbers, Taylor polynomials, and infinite series during Ma 1 a. It may not be taken by students who have passed the regular Ma 1 a.
Instructor:
Staff
Ma 2/102
Differential Equations.
9 units (405)

9 units (405); first term
Prerequisites: Ma 1 abc.
The course is aimed at providing an introduction to the theory of ordinary differential equations, with a particular emphasis on equations with well known applications ranging from physics to population dynamics. The material covered includes some existence and uniqueness results, first order linear equations and systems, exact equations, linear equations with constant coefficients, series solutions, regular singular equations, Laplace transform, and methods for the study of nonlinear equations (equilibria, stability, predatorprey equations, periodic solutions and limiting cycles). First offered 201415.
Ma 2 ab
Differential Equations, Probability and Statistics
9 units (405)

first, second terms
Prerequisites: Ma 1 abc.
Ordinary differential equations, probability, statistics. Not offered after 201314.
Instructors:
Makarov, Border
Ma 3
Introduction to Probability and Statistics
9 units (405)

second term
Prerequisites: Ma 1 abc.
Randomness is not anarchyit follows mathematical laws that we can understand and use to clarify our knowledge of the universe. This course is an introduction to the main ideas of probability and statistics. The first half is devoted to the fundamental concepts of probability theory, including distributions and random variables, independence and conditional probability, expectation, the Law of Averages (Laws of Large Numbers), and "the bell curve" (Central Limit Theorem). The second half is devoted to statistical reasoning: given our observations of the world, what can we infer about the stochastic mechanisms generating our data? Major themes include estimation of parameters (e.g. maximum likelihood), hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, and regression analysis (least squares). Students will be expected to be able to carry out computerbased analyses. First offered 201415.
Ma 4/104
Introduction to Mathematical Chaos
9 units (306)

third term
An introduction to the mathematics of "chaos." Period doubling universality, and related topics; interval maps, symbolic itineraries, stable/unstable manifold theorem, strange attractors, iteration of complex analytic maps, applications to multidimensional dynamics systems and realworld problems. Possibly some additional topics, such as Sarkovski's theorem, absolutely continuous invariant measures, sensitivity to initial conditions, and the horseshoe map.
Instructor:
Marcolli
Ma 5/105 abc
Introduction to Abstract Algebra
9 units (306)

first, second, third terms
Introduction to groups, rings, fields, and modules. The first term is devoted to groups and includes treatments of semidirect products and Sylow's theorem. The second term discusses rings and modules and includes a proof that principal ideal domains have unique factorization and the classification of finitely generated modules over principal ideal domains. The third term covers field theory and Galois theory, plus some special topics if time permits. This course it to be taught concurrently with Ma 105.
Instructors:
Flach, Mantovan, Ormerod
Ma/CS 6 abc
Introduction to Discrete Mathematics
9 units (306)

first, second, third terms
Prerequisites: for Ma/CS 6 c, Ma/CS 6 a or Ma 5 a or instructor's permission.
First term: a survey emphasizing graph theory, algorithms, and applications of algebraic structures. Graphs: paths, trees, circuits, breadthfirst and depthfirst searches, colorings, matchings. Enumeration techniques; formal power series; combinatorial interpretations. Topics from coding and cryptography, including Hamming codes and RSA. Second term: directed graphs; networks; combinatorial optimization; linear programming. Permutation groups; counting nonisomorphic structures. Topics from extremal graph and set theory, and partially ordered sets. Third term: elements of computability theory and computational complexity. Discussion of the P=NP problem, syntax and semantics of propositional and firstorder logic. Introduction to the Godel completeness and incompleteness theorems.
Instructors:
Wilson, Marx
Ma 7/107
Number Theory for Beginners
9 units (306)

first term
Some of the fundamental ideas, techniques, and open problems of basic number theory will be introduced. Examples will be stressed. Topics include Euclidean algorithm, primes, Diophantine equations, including an + bn = cn and a2  db2 = A, A +/ 1, constructible numbers, composition of binary quadratic forms, and congruences.
Instructor:
Ramakrishnan
Ma 8
Problem Solving in Calculus
3 units (300)

first term
Prerequisites: simultaneous registration in Ma 1 a.
A threehour per week handson class for those students in Ma 1 needing extra practice in problem solving in calculus.
Instructor:
Staff
Ma 10
Oral Presentation
3 units (201); first term

Open for credit to anyone
In this course, students will receive training and practice in presenting mathematical material before an audience. In particular, students will present material of their own choosing to other members of the class. There may also be elementary lectures from members of the mathematics faculty on topics of their own research interest.
Instructor:
Mantovan
Ma 11
Mathematical Writing
3 units (003); third term

Freshmen must have instructor's permission to enroll
Students will work with the instructor and a mentor to write and revise a selfcontained paper dealing with a topic in mathematics. In the first week, an introduction to some matters of style and format will be given in a classroom setting. Some help with typesetting in TeX may be available. Students are encouraged to take advantage of the Hixon Writing Center's facilities. The mentor and the topic are to be selected in consultation with the instructor. It is expected that in most cases the paper will be in the style of a textbook or journal article, at the level of the student's peers (mathematics students at Caltech). Fulfills the Institute scientific writing requirement. Not offered on a pass/fail basis.
Instructor:
Wilson
Ma 17
How to Solve It
4 units (202)

first term
There are many problems in elementary mathematics that require ingenuity for their solution. This is a seminartype course on problem solving in areas of mathematics where little theoretical knowledge is required. Students will work on problems taken from diverse areas of mathematics; there is no prerequisite and the course is open to freshmen. May be repeated for credit. Graded pass/fail.
Instructor:
Staff
Ma 91 a
Homological Algebra
9 units (306)

first term
Prerequisites: Ma 5 or instructor's permission.
This course will be a first introduction to homological algebra, covering generalities on additive and abelian categories; the category of complexes, and the long exact sequence of cohomology; cones and homotopies; the homotopic category of complexes; projective and injective resolutions, and the derived category; derived functors; double complexes; spectral sequences; and further topics as time permits. Not offered 201314.
Ma 92 abc
Senior Thesis
9 units (009)

first, second, third terms
Prerequisites: To register, the student must obtain permission of the mathematics undergraduate representative, Richard Wilson.
Open only to senior mathematics majors who are qualified to pursue independent reading and research. This research must be supervised by a faculty member. The research must begin in the first term of the senior year and will normally follow up on an earlier SURF or independent reading project. Two short presentations to a thesis committee are required: the first at the end of the first term and the second at the midterm week of the third term. A draft of the written thesis must be completed and distributed to the committee one week before the second presentation. Graded pass/fail in the first and second terms; a letter grade will be given in the third term.
Ma 98
Independent Reading
36 units by arrangement
Occasionally a reading course will be offered after student consultation with a potential supervisor. Topics, hours, and units by arrangement. Graded pass/fail.
Ma 106
Elliptic Curves
9 units (306)

third term
Prerequisites: Ma 5, Ma 3, or equivalents.
The ubiquitous elliptic curves will be analyzed from elementary, geometric, and arithmetic points of view. Possible topics are the group structure via the chordandtangent method, the NagelLutz procedure for finding division points, Mordell's theorem on the finite generation of rational points, points over finite fields through a special case treated by Gauss, Lenstra's factoring algorithm, integral points. Other topics may include diophantine approximation and complex multiplication.
Instructor:
Tsai
Ma 108 abc
Classical Analysis
9 units (306)

first, second, third terms
Prerequisites: Ma 2 or equivalent, or instructor's permission. May be taken concurrently with Ma 109.
First term: structure of the real numbers, topology of metric spaces, a rigorous approach to differentiation in R^n. Second term: brief introduction to ordinary differential equations; Lebesgue integration and an introduction to Fourier analysis. Third term: the theory of functions of one complex variable.
Instructors:
Frank, Katz, Demirel
Ma 109 abc
Introduction to Geometry and Topology
9 units (306)

first, second, third terms
Prerequisites: Ma 2 or equivalent, and Ma 108 must be taken previously or concurrently.
First term: aspects of point set topology, and an introduction to geometric and algebraic methods in topology. Second term: the differential geometry of curves and surfaces in two and threedimensional Euclidean space. Third term: an introduction to differentiable manifolds. Transversality, differential forms, and further related topics.
Instructors:
Markovic, Gupta, Trnkova
Ma 110 abc
Analysis, I
9 units (306)

first, second, third terms
Prerequisites: Ma 108 or previous exposure to metric space topology, Lebesgue measure.
First term: integration theory and basic real analysis: topological spaces, Hilbert space basics, Fejer's theorem, measure theory, measures as functionals, product measures, L^p spaces, Baire category, Hahn Banach theorem, Alaoglu's theorem, KreinMillman theorem, countably normed spaces, tempered distributions and the Fourier transform. Second term: basic complex analysis: analytic functions, conformal maps and fractional linear transformations, idea of Riemann surfaces, elementary and some special functions, infinite sums and products, entire and meromorphic functions, elliptic functions. Third term: harmonic analysis; operator theory. Harmonic analysis: maximal functions and the HardyLittlewood maximal theorem, the maximal and Birkoff ergodic theorems, harmonic and subharmonic functions, theory of H^p spaces and boundary values of analytic functions. Operator theory: compact operators, trace and determinant on a Hilbert space, orthogonal polynomials, the spectral theorem for bounded operators. If time allows, the theory of commutative Banach algebras.
Instructors:
Makarov, Rains, Marx
Ma 111 a
Analysis, II
9 units (306)

third term
Prerequisites: Ma 110 or instructor's permission.
This course will discuss advanced topics in analysis, which vary from year to year. Topics from previous years include potential theory, bounded analytic functions in the unit disk, probabilistic and combinatorial methods in analysis, operator theory, C*algebras, functional analysis. The third term will cover special functions: gamma functions, hypergeometric functions, beta/Selberg integrals and $q$analogues. Time permitting: orthogonal polynomials, Painleve transcendents and/or elliptic analogues
Instructor:
Simon
Ma 112 ab
Statistics
9 units (306)

second term
Prerequisites: Ma 2 a probability and statistics or equivalent.
The first term covers general methods of testing hypotheses and constructing confidence sets, including regression analysis, analysis of variance, and nonparametric methods. The second term covers permutation methods and the bootstrap, point estimation, Bayes methods, and multistage sampling. Not offered 201314.
Ma 116 abc
Mathematical Logic and Axiomatic Set Theory
9 units (306)

first, second, third terms
Prerequisites: Ma 5 or equivalent, or instructor's permission.
Propositional logic, predicate logic, formal proofs, Godel completeness theorem, the method of resolution, elements of model theory. Computability, undecidability, Godel incompleteness theorems. Axiomatic set theory, ordinals, transfinite induction and recursion, iterations and fixed points, cardinals, axiom of choice.
Instructor:
Williams
Ma/CS 117 abc
Computability Theory
9 units (306)

first, second, third terms
Prerequisites: Ma 5 or equivalent, or instructor's permission.
Various approaches to computability theory, e.g., Turing machines, recursive functions, Markov algorithms
Ma 118
Topics in Mathematical Logic: Geometrical Paradoxes
9 units (306)

second term
Prerequisites: Ma 5 or equivalent, or instructor's permission.
This course will provide an introduction to the striking paradoxes that challenge our geometrical intuition. Topics to be discussed include geometrical transformations, especially rigid motions; free groups; amenable groups; group actions; equidecomposability and invariant measures; Tarski's theorem; the role of the axiom of choice; old and new paradoxes, including the BanachTarski paradox, the Laczkovich paradox (solving the Tarski circlesquaring problem), and the DoughertyForeman paradox (the solution of the Marczewski problem). Not offered 201314.
Ma 120 abc
Abstract Algebra
9 units (306)

first, second, third terms
Prerequisites: Ma 5 or equivalent. Undergraduates who have not taken Ma 5 must have instructor's permission.
Basic theory of groups, rings, modules, and fields, including free groups; Sylow's theorem; solvable and nilpotent groups; factorization in commutative rings; integral extensions; Wedderburn theorems; Jacobson radical; semisimple, projective, and injective modules; tensor products; chain conditions; Galois theory; cyclotomic extensions; separability; transcendental extensions.
Instructors:
Graber, Hedayatazadeh, Flach
Ma 121 ab
Combinatorial Analysis
9 units (306)

first, second, third terms
Prerequisites: Ma 5.
A survey of modern combinatorial mathematics, starting with an introduction to graph theory and extremal problems. Flows in networks with combinatorial applications. Counting, recursion, and generating functions. Theory of partitions. (0, 1)matrices. Partially ordered sets. Latin squares, finite geometries, combinatorial designs, and codes. Algebraic graph theory, graph embedding, and coloring.
Instructor:
Rains
Ma 122 abc
Topics in Group Theory
9 units (306)

first, second, third terms
Topics to be decided by instructor. Not offered 201314.
Ma 123
Classification of Simple Lie Algebras
9 units (306)

third term
Prerequisites: Ma 5 or equivalent.
This course is an introduction to Lie algebras and the classification of the simple Lie algebras over the complex numbers. This will include Lie's theorem, Engel's theorem, the solvable radical, and the Cartan Killing trace form. The classification of simple Lie algebras proceeds in terms of the associated reflection groups and a classification of them in terms of their Dynkin diagrams. Not offered 201314.
Ma 125
Algebraic Curves
8 units (306)
Prerequisites: Ma 5.
An elementary introduction to the theory of algebraic curves. Topics to be covered will include affine and projective curves, smoothness and singularities, function fields, linear series, and the RiemannRoch theorem. Possible additional topics would include Riemann surfaces, branched coverings and monodromy, arithmetic questions, introduction to moduli of curves. Not offered 201314.
EE/Ma/CS 126 ab
Information Theory
9 units (306)

first, second terms
Prerequisites: Ma 2.
Shannon's mathematical theory of communication, 1948present. Entropy, relative entropy, and mutual information for discrete and continuous random variables. Shannon's source and channel coding theorems. Mathematical models for information sources and communication channels, including memoryless, first order Markov, ergodic, and Gaussian. Calculation of capacity and ratedistortion functions. Kolmogorov complexity and universal source codes. Side information in source coding and communications. Network information theory, including multiuser data compression, multiple access channels, broadcast channels, and multiterminal networks. Discussion of philosophical and practical implications of the theory. This course, when combined with EE 112, EE/Ma/CS 127, EE 161, and/or EE 167 should prepare the student for research in information theory, coding theory, wireless communications, and/or data compression.
Instructor:
Effros
EE/Ma/CS 127
ErrorCorrecting Codes
9 units (306)

third term
Prerequisites: Ma 2.
This course develops from first principles the theory and practical implementation of the most important techniques for combating errors in digital transmission or storage systems. Topics include algebraic block codes, e.g., Hamming, BCH, ReedSolomon (including a selfcontained introduction to the theory of finite fields); and the modern theory of sparse graph codes with iterative decoding, e.g. LDPC codes, turbo codes, fountain coding. Emphasis will be placed on the associated encoding and decoding algorithms, and students will be asked to demonstrate their understanding with a software project.
Instructor:
Ho
CS/EE/Ma 129 abc
Information and Complexity
9 units (306), first and second terms

(144) third term
Prerequisites: basic knowledge of probability and discrete mathematics.
A basic course in information theory and computational complexity with emphasis on fundamental concepts and tools that equip the student for research and provide a foundation for pattern recognition and learning theory. First term: what information is and what computation is; entropy, source coding, Turing machines, uncomputability. Second term: topics in information and complexity; Kolmogorov complexity, channel coding, circuit complexity, NPcompleteness. Third term: theoretical and experimental projects on current research topics. Not offered 201314.
Ma 130 abc
Algebraic Geometry
9 units (306)

first, second, third terms
Prerequisites: Ma 120 (or Ma 5 plus additional reading).
Plane curves, rational functions, affine and projective varieties, products, local properties, birational maps, divisors, differentials, intersection numbers, schemes, sheaves, general varieties, vector bundles, coherent sheaves, curves and surfaces.
Instructor:
Tian
Ma 132 c
Topics in Algebraic Geometry
9 units (306)

third term
Prerequisites: Ma 130 or instructor's permission.
This course will cover advanced topics in algebraic geometry that will vary from year to year. This year, the topic will be deformation theory.
Instructor:
Hedayatazadeh
Ma 135 ab
Arithmetic Geometry
9 units (306)

first, second terms
Prerequisites: Ma 130.
The course deals with aspects of algebraic geometry that have been found useful for number theoretic applications. Topics will be chosen from the following: general cohomology theories (etale cohomology, flat cohomology, motivic cohomology, or padic Hodge theory), curves and Abelian varieties over arithmetic schemes, moduli spaces, Diophantine geometry, algebraic cycles. Not offered 201314.
Ma/ACM 142
Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations
9 units (306)

first term
Prerequisites: Ma 108; Ma 109 is desirable.
The mathematical theory of ordinary and partial differential equations, including a discussion of elliptic regularity, maximal principles, solubility of equations. The method of characteristics.
Instructor:
Frank
Ma/ACM 144 abc
Probability
9 units (306)

first, second, third terms
Overview of measure theory. Random walks and the Strong law of large numbers via the theory of martingales and Markov chains. Characteristic functions and the central limit theorem. Poisson process and Brownian motion. Topics in statistics.
Instructors:
Alberts, Chipeniuk
Ma 145 ab
Introduction to Unitary Group Representations
9 units (306)

first, second terms
The study of representations of a group by unitary operators on a Hilbert space, including finite and compact groups, and, to the extent that time allows, other groups. First term: general representation theory of finite groups. Frobenius's theory of representations of semidirect products. The Young tableaux and the representations of symmetric groups. Second term: the PeterWeyl theorem. The classical compact groups and their representation theory. Weyl character formula. Third term: Quantum Groups.
Instructors:
Chipeniuk, Alberts
Ma 147 abc
Dynamical Systems
9 units (306)

first, second, third terms
Prerequisites: Ma 108, Ma 109, or equivalent.
First term: real dynamics and ergodic theory. Second term: Hamiltonian dynamics. Third term: complex dynamics. Not offered 201314.
Ma 148 abc
Topics in Mathematical Physics
9 units (306)

first, second, third terms
This course covers a range of topics in mathematical physics. The content will vary from year to year. Topics covered will include some of the following: Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism of classical mechanics; mathematical aspects of quantum mechanics: Schroedinger equation, spectral theory of unbounded operators, representation theoretic aspects; partial differential equations of mathematical physics (wave, heat, Maxwell, etc.); rigorous results in classical and/or quantum statistical mechanics; mathematical aspects of quantum field theory; general relativity for mathematicians. First term: geometric theory of quantum information and quantum entanglement based on information geometry and entropy.
Instructors:
Demirel, Zhou
Ma 151 abc
Algebraic and Differential Topology
9 units (306)

first, second, third terms
Prerequisites: Ma 109 abc or equivalent.
A basic graduate core course. Fundamental groups and covering spaces, homology and calculation of homology groups, exact sequences. Fibrations, higher homotopy groups, and exact sequences of fibrations. Bundles, EilenbergMaclane spaces, classifying spaces. Structure of differentiable manifolds, transversality, degree theory, De Rham cohomology, spectral sequences.
Instructors:
Markovic, Liu
Ma 157 ab
Riemannian Geometry
9 units (306)

first, second terms
Prerequisites: Ma 151 or equivalent, or instructor's permission.
Part a: basic Riemannian geometry: geometry of Riemannian manifolds, connections, curvature, Bianchi identities, completeness, geodesics, exponential map, Gauss's lemma, Jacobi fields, Lie groups, principal bundles, and characteristic classes. Part b: basic topics may vary from year to year and may include elements of Morse theory and the calculus of variations, locally symmetric spaces, special geometry, comparison theorems, relation between curvature and topology, metric functionals and flows, geometry in low dimensions.
Instructors:
Gupta, Venselaar, Baba
Ma 160 abc
Number Theory
9 units (306)

first, second, third terms
Prerequisites: Ma 5.
In this course, the basic structures and results of algebraic number theory will be systematically introduced. Topics covered will include the theory of ideals/divisors in Dedekind domains, Dirichlet unit theorem and the class group, padic fields, ramification, Abelian extensions of local and global fields.
Instructors:
Flach, Hedayatzadeh, Ramakrishnan
Ma 162 ab
Topics in Number Theory
9 units (306)

second, third terms
Prerequisites: Ma 160.
The course will discuss in detail some advanced topics in number theory, selected from the following: Galois representations, elliptic curves, modular forms, Lfunctions, special values, automorphic representations, padic theories, theta functions, regulators.
Instructors:
Tsai, Tian
Ma 191 abc
Selected Topics in Mathematics
9 units (306)

first, second, third terms
Each term we expect to give between 0 and 6 (most often 23) topics courses in advanced mathematics covering an area of current research interest. These courses will be given as sections of 191. Students may register for this course multiple times even for multiple sections in a single term. The topics and instructors for each term and course descriptions will be listed on the math option website each term prior to the start of registration for that term.
Instructor:
Staff
SS/Ma 214
Mathematical Finance
9 units (306)

first term
A course on fundamentals of the mathematical modeling of stock prices and interest rates, the theory of option pricing, risk management, and optimal portfolio selection. Students will be introduced to the stochastic calculus of various continuoustime models, including diffusion models and models with jumps.
Instructor:
Cvitanic
Ma 290
Reading
Hours and units by arrangement
Occasionally, advanced work is given through a reading course under the direction of an instructor.
Published Date:
July 28, 2022