The online version of the Caltech Catalog is provided as a convenience; however, the printed version is the only authoritative source of information about course offerings, option requirements, graduation requirements, and other important topics. ## ELECTRICAL ENGINEERINGEE 1. Introduction to Electrical Engineering Seminar. 1 unit; second term. Required for EE undergraduates. Weekly seminar given by faculty in the department broadly describing different areas of electrical engineering: circuits and VLSI, communications, control, devices, images and vision, information theory, learning and pattern recognition, MEMS and micromachining, networks, electromagnetics and opto-electronics, RF and microwave circuits and antennas, robotics and signal processing, and specifically, research going on at Caltech. Instructor: Staff. EE 5. Introduction to Embedded Systems. 6 units (2-3-1); third term. This course is intended to give the student a basic understanding of the major hardware and software principles involved in the specification and design of embedded systems. Topics include basic digital logic, CPU and embedded system architecture, and embedded systems programming principles (events, user interfaces, and multitasking). The class is intended for students who wish to gain a basic understanding of embedded systems or for those who would like an introduction to the material before taking EE/CS 51/52. Graded pass/fail. Instructor: George. EE/ME 7. Introduction to Mechatronics. 6 units (2-3-1); second term. Mechatronics is the multi-disciplinary design of electro-mechanical systems. This course is intended to give the student a basic introduction to such systems. The course will focus on the implementations of sensor and actuator systems, the mechanical devices involved and the electrical circuits needed to interface with them. The class will consist of lectures and short labs where the student will be able to investigate the concepts discussed in lecture. Topics covered include motors, piezoelectric devices, light sensors, ultrasonic transducers, and navigational sensors such as accelerometers and gyroscopes. Graded pass/fail. Instructor: George. APh/EE 9 ab. Solid-State Electronics for Integrated Circuits. 6 units (2-2-2). For course description, see Applied Physics. EE 40. Introduction to Semiconductors Devices. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. Prerequisites: APh/EE 9 ab, Ma 2, Ph 2. This course provides an introduction to semiconductors and semiconductor sensors. The fundamental physics of semiconductor electronics and devices will be emphasized, together with their applications. Devices that will be discussed include photoconductors, diodes, transistors, CCDs, MOS/MOSFET/MOS imagers, temperature sensors, magnetic sensors, thermoelectricity, piezoresistivity, piezoelectrics, etc. Instructor: Tai. EE 44. Circuits and Systems. 9 units (3-0-6); first term. Prerequisites: Ph1 abc, should be taken concurrently with Ma 2 a and Ph 2 a. Fundamentals of circuits and network theory, circuit elements, linear circuits, terminals and port presentation, nodal and mesh analysis, time-domain analysis of circuits and systems, sinusoidal response, introductory frequency domain analysis, transfer functions, poles and zeros, time and transfer constants, network theorems, transformers. Instructors: Hajimiri. EE 45. Electronics Laboratory. 12 units (3-3-6); second term. Prerequisites: EE 44. Fundamentals of electronic circuits and systems. Lectures on diodes, transistors, small-signal analysis, frequency- domain analysis, application of Laplace transform, gain stages, differential signaling, operational amplifiers, introduction to radio and analog communication systems. Laboratory sessions on transient response, steady-state sinusoidal response and phasors, diodes, transistors, amplifiers. Instructor: Emami. EE/CS 51. Principles of Microprocessor Systems. 12 units (4-5-3); first term. The principles and design of microprocessor-based computer systems. Lectures cover both hardware and software aspects of microprocessor system design such as interfacing to input and output devices, user interface design, real-time systems, and table-driven software. The homework emphasis is on software development, especially interfacing with hardware, in assembly language. Instructor: George. EE/CS 52. Microprocessor Systems Laboratory. 12 units (1-11-0); second term. Prerequisite: EE/CS 51 or equivalent. The student will design, build, and program a specified microprocessor-based system. This structured laboratory is organized to familiarize the student with electronic circuit construction techniques, modern development facilities, and standard design techniques. The lectures cover topics in microprocessor system design such as display technologies, interfacing with analog systems, and programming microprocessors in high-level languages. Instructor: George. EE/CS 53. Microprocessor Project Laboratory. 12 units (0-12-0); first, second, third terms. Prerequisites: EE/CS 52 or equivalent. A project laboratory to permit the student to select, design, and build a microprocessor-based system. The student is expected to take a project from proposal through design and implementation (possibly including PCB fabrication) to final review and documentation. May be repeated for credit. Instructor: George. CS/EE/ME 75 abc. Introduction to Multidisciplinary Systems Engineering. 3 units (2-0-1) first term; 3–6 units second term; 12 units (2-9-1) or up to 18 units (2-15-1) third term. For course description, see Computer Science. Not offered 2013–14 EE 80 abc. Senior Thesis. 9 units; first, second, third terms. Prerequisite: instructor’s permission, which should be obtained during the junior year to allow sufficient time for planning the research. Individual research project, carried out under the supervision of a member of the electrical engineering or computer science faculty. Project must include significant design effort. Written report required. Open only to senior electrical engineering, computer science, or electrical and computer engineering majors. Not offered on a pass/fail basis. Instructor: Potter. EE 90. Analog Electronics Project Laboratory. 9 units (1-8-0); third term. Prerequisites: EE 40 and EE 45. A structured laboratory course that gives the student the opportunity to design and build a simple analog electronics project. The goal is to gain familiarity with circuit design and construction, component selection, CAD support, and debugging techniques. Instructor: Megdal. EE 91 ab. Experimental Projects in Electronic Circuits. Units by arrangement; first, second terms. 12 units minimum each term. Prerequisite: EE 45. Recommended: EE/CS 51 and 52, and EE 114 ab (may be taken concurrently). Open to seniors; others only with instructor’s permission. An opportunity to do advanced original projects in analog or digital electronics and electronic circuits. Selection of significant projects, the engineering approach, modern electronic techniques, demonstration and review of a finished product. DSP/microprocessor development support and analog/digital CAD facilities available. Text: literature references. Instructor: Megdal. EE 99. Advanced Work in Electrical Engineering. Units to be arranged. Special problems relating to electrical engineering will be arranged. For undergraduates; students should consult with their advisers. Graded pass/fail. EE 105 abc. Electrical Engineering Seminar. 1 unit; first, second, third terms. All candidates for the M.S. degree in electrical engineering are required to attend any graduate seminar in any division each week of each term. Graded pass/fail. Instructor: Hassibi. EST/EE/ME 109. Energy: Supply and Demand. 9 units(3-0-6.) For course description, see Energy Science and Technology. EE 111. Signal-Processing Systems and Transforms. 9 units (3-0-6); first term. Prerequisites: Ma 1. An introduction to continuous and discrete time signals and systems with emphasis on digital signal processing systems. Study of the Fourier transform, Fourier series, z-transforms, and the fast Fourier transform as applied in electrical engineering. Sampling theorems for continuous to discrete-time conversion. Difference equations for digital signal processing systems, digital system realizations with block diagrams, analysis of transient and steady state responses, and connections to other areas in science and engineering. Instructors: Vaidyanathan. EE 112. Introduction to Digital Signal Processing. 9 units (3-0-6); second term. Prerequisites: EE 111 or equivalent. Math 3 recommended. Fundamentals of digital signal processing, digital filtering, recursive and non recursive filters, linear phase and minimum phase systems, digital filter structures, allpass filters and applications, quantization and stability analysis, round-off noise calculations, Nyquist and sub-Nyquist sampling, elements of multrirate signal processing, reconstruction of sparsely sampled signals, statistical signal processing and sensor array signal processing, and applications in various areas. Offered 2013–14. Instructors: Vaidyanathan. EE 113. Feedback and Control Circuits. 12 units (4-4-4); third term. Prerequisite: EE 45 or equivalent. This class studies the design and implementation of feedback and control circuits. The course begins with an introduction to basic feedback circuits, using both op amps and transistors. These circuits are used to study feedback principles, including circuit topologies, stability, and compensation. Following this, basic control techniques and circuits are studied, including PID (Proportional-Integrated-Derivative) control, digital control, and fuzzy control. There is a significant laboratory component to this course, in which the student will be expected to design, build, analyze, test, and measure the circuits and systems discussed in the lectures. Instructor: George. EE/MedE 114 ab. Analog Circuit Design. 12 units (4-0-8); second, third terms. Prerequisites: EE 44 or equivalent. Analysis and design of analog circuits at the transistor level. Emphasis on design-oriented analysis, quantitative performance measures, and practical circuit limitations. Circuit performance evaluated by hand calculations and computer simulations. Recommended for juniors, seniors, and graduate students. Topics include: review of physics of bipolar and MOS transistors, low-frequency behavior of single-stage and multistage amplifiers, current sources, active loads, differential amplifiers, operational amplifiers, high-frequency circuit analysis using time- and transfer constants, high-frequency response of amplifiers, feedback in electronic circuits, stability of feedback amplifiers, and noise in electronic circuits, and supply and temperature independent biasing. A number of the following topics will be covered each year: trans-linear circuits, switched capacitor circuits, data conversion circuits (A/D and D/A), continuous-time Gm.C filters, phase locked loops, oscillators, and modulators. Instructors: Hajimiri. EE/MedE 115. Micro-/Nano-scales Electro-Optics. 9 units (3-0-6); first term. Prerequisites: Introductory electromagnetic class and consent of the instructor. The course will cover various electro-optical phenomena and devices in the micro-/nano-scales. We will discuss basic properties of light, imaging, aberrations, eyes, detectors, lasers, micro-optical components and systems, scalar diffraction theory, interference/interferometers, holography, dielectric/plasmonic waveguides, and various Raman techniques. Topics may vary. Instructors: Choo. ACM/EE 116. Introduction to Stochastic Processes and Modeling. 9 units (3-0-6). For course description, see Applied and Computational Mathematics. Ph/APh/EE/BE 118 abc. Physics of Measurement. units (3-0-6); first, second, third terms. Prerequisites: Ph 105 or equivalent. For course description, see Physics. EE 119 abc. Advanced Digital Systems Design. 9 units (3-3-3) first, second term; 9 units (1-8-0) third term; first, second, third terms. Prerequisite: EE/CS 52 or CS/EE 181 a or CS 24. Advanced digital design as it applies to the design of systems using PLDs and ASICs (in particular, gate arrays and standard cells). The course covers both design and implementation details of various systems and logic device technologies. The emphasis is on the practical aspects of ASIC design, such as timing, testing, and fault grading. Topics include synchronous design, state machine design, ALU and CPU design, application-specific parallel computer design, design for testability, PALs, FPGAs, VHDL, standard cells, timing analysis, fault vectors, and fault grading. Students are expected to design and implement both systems discussed in the class as well as self-proposed systems using a variety of technologies and tools. Not Offered: 2013–14 Instructor: George. EE/MedE 124. Mixed-mode Integrated Circuits. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. Prerequisites: EE 45 a or equivalent. Introduction to selected topics in mixed-signal circuits and systems in highly scaled CMOS technologies. Design challenges and limitations in current and future technologies will be discussed through topics such as clocking (PLLs and DLLs), clock distribution networks, sampling circuits, high-speed transceivers, timing recovery techniques, equalization, monitor circuits, power delivery, and converters (A/D and D/A). A design project is an integral part of the course. Instructors: Emami. EE 125. Digital Electronics and Design with FPGAs and VHDL. 9 units (3-6-0); third term. Prerequisite: basic knowledge of digital electronics. Study of programmable logic devices (CPLDs and FPGAs). Detailed study of the VHDL language, with basic and advanced applications. Review and discussion of digital design principles for combinational-logic, combinational-arithmetic, sequential, and state-machine circuits. Detailed tutorials for synthesis and simulation tools using FPGAs and VHDL. Wide selection of complete, real-world fundamental advanced projects, including theory, design, simulation, and physical implementation. All designs are implemented using state-of-the-art development boards. Not Offered 2013–14. Instructor: Staff. EE/Ma/CS 126 ab. Information Theory. 9 units (3-0-6); first, second terms. Prerequisites: Ma 2. Shannon’s mathematical theory of communication, 1948-present. Entropy, relative entropy, and mutual information for discrete and continuous random variables. Shannon’s source and channel coding theorems. Mathematical models for information sources and communication channels, including memoryless, first- order Markov, ergodic, and Gaussian. Calculation of capacity and rate-distortion functions. Kolmogorov complexity and universal source codes. Side information in source coding and communications. Network information theory, including multiuser data compression, multiple access channels, broadcast channels, and multiterminal networks. Discussion of philosophical and practical implications of the theory. This course, when combined with EE 112, EE/Ma/CS 127, EE 161, and/or EE 167 should prepare the student for research in information theory, coding theory, wireless communications, and/or data compression. Instructors: Effros. EE/Ma/CS 127. Error-Correcting Codes. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. Prerequisites: Ma 2. This course develops from first principles the theory and practical implementation of the most important techniques for combating errors in digital transmission or storage systems. Topics include algebraic block codes, e.g., Hamming, BCH, Reed-Solomon (including a self-contained introduction to the theory of finite fields); and the modern theory of sparse graph codes with iterative decoding, e.g. LDPC codes, turbo codes, fountain coding. Emphasis will be placed on the associated encoding and decoding algorithms, and students will be asked to demonstrate their understanding with a software project. Instructor: Ho. EE 128 ab. Selected Topics in Digital Signal Processing. 9 units (3-0-6); second, third terms. Prerequisites: EE 111 and EE 160 or equivalent required, and EE 112 or equivalent recommended. The course focuses on several important topics that are basic to modern signal processing. Topics include multirate signal processing material such as decimation, interpolation, filter banks, polyphase filtering, advanced filtering structures and nonuniform sampling, optimal statistical signal processing material such as linear prediction and antenna array processing, and signal processing for communication including optimal transceivers. Not offered 2013–14. CS/EE/Ma 129 abc. Information and Complexity. 9 units (3-0-6) first, second terms; (1-4-4) third term. For course description, see Computer Science. APh/EE 130. Electromagnetic Theory. 9 units (3-0-6); first term. For course description, see Applied Physics. EE/APh 131. Optical Wave Propagation. 9 units (3-0-6); second term. Light-matter interaction, spontaneous and induced transitions in atoms and semiconductors. Absorption, amplification, and dispersion of light in atomic media. Principles of laser oscillation, generic types of lasers including semiconductor lasers, mode-locked lasers. Frequency combs in lasers. The spectral properties and coherence of laser light. Instructors: Yariv. APh/EE 132. Special Topics in Photonics and Optoelectronics. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. For course description, see Applied Physics. EE/CS/EST 135. Power System Analysis. 9 units (3-0-6); second term. Prerequisites: EE 44, Ma 2a, or equivalent. Phasor representation, 3-phase transmission system, per-phase analysis; power system modeling, transmission line, transformer, generator; network matrix, power flow solution, optimal power flow; Swing equation, stability, protection; demand response, power markets. Instructor: Low. CS/EE 143. Communication Networks. 9 units (3-3-3). For course description, see Computer Science. CS/EE 144. The Ideas Behind Our Networked World. 12 units (3-3-6); second term. Prerequisites: Ma 2, Ma 3, CS 24 and CS 38, or instructor permission. For course description, see Computer Science. CS/EE 145. Projects in Networking. 9 units (0-0-9). For course description, see Computer Science. CS/EE 146. Advanced Networking. 9 units (3-3-3). For course description, see Computer Science. CS/EE 147. Network Performance Analysis. 9 units (3-0-6). For course description, see Computer Science. EE/CNS/CS 148 ab. Selected Topics in Computational Vision. 9 units (3-0-6); first, third terms. Prerequisites: undergraduate calculus, linear algebra, geometry, statistics, computer programming. EE 148a is not a prerequisite for EE 148b. The class will focus on an advanced topic in computational vision: recognition, vision-based navigation, 3-D reconstruction. The class will include a tutorial introduction to the topic, an exploration of relevant recent literature, and a project involving the design, implementation, and testing of a vision system. Part a not offered 2013–14; Part b offered 2013–14. Instructors: Perona. EE 150. Topics in Electrical Engineering. Units to be arranged; terms to be arranged. Content will vary from year to year, at a level suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate students. Topics will be chosen according to the interests of students and staff. Visiting faculty may present all or portions of this course from time to time. Instructor: Staff. EE 151. Electromagnetic Engineering. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. Prerequisite: EE 45. Foundations of circuit theory—electric fields, magnetic fields, transmission lines, and Maxwell’s equations, with engineering applications. Instructor: Yang. EE 153. Microwave Circuits and Antennas. 12 units (3-2-7); third term. Prerequisite: EE 45. High-speed circuits for wireless communications, radar, and broadcasting. Design, fabrication, and measurements of microstrip filters, directional couplers, low-noise amplifiers, oscillators, detectors, and mixers. Design, fabrication, and measurements of wire antennas and arrays. Instructor: Antsos. CS/CNS/EE/NB 154. Artificial Intelligence. 9 units (3-3-3). For course description, see Computer Science. CS/CNS/EE 155. Probabilistic Graphical Models. 9 units (3-3-3). For course description, see Computer Science. CS/CNS/EE 156 ab. Learning Systems. 9 units (3-0-6). For course description, see Computer Science. EE/Ae 157 ab. Introduction to the Physics of Remote Sensing. 9 units (3-0-6); first, second terms. Prerequisite: Ph 2 or equivalent. An overview of the physics behind space remote sensing instruments. Topics include the interaction of electromagnetic waves with natural surfaces, including scattering of microwaves, microwave and thermal emission from atmospheres and surfaces, and spectral reflection from natural surfaces and atmospheres in the near-infrared and visible regions of the spectrum. The class also discusses the design of modern space sensors and associated technology, including sensor design, new observation techniques, ongoing developments, and data interpretation. Examples of applications and instrumentation in geology, planetology, oceanography, astronomy, and atmospheric research. Instructor: van Zyl. Ge/EE/ESE 157 c. Remote Sensing for Environmental and Geological Applications. 9 units (3-3-3). For course description, see Geological and Planetary Sciences. CS/CNS/EE 159. Projects in Machine Learning and AI. 9 units (0-0-9). For course description, see Computer Science. EE 160. Communication-System Fundamentals. 9 units (3-0-6); second term. Prerequisite: EE 111. Laws of radio and guided transmission, noise as a limiting factor, AM and FM signals and signal-to-noise ratio, sampling and digital transmission, errors, information theory, error correction. Emphasis will be on fundamental laws and equations and their use in communication-system designs, including voice, video, and data. Instructor: Hassibi. EE 161. Wireless Communications. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. Prerequisite: EE 160. This course will cover the fundamentals of wireless channels and channel models, wireless communication techniques, and wireless networks. Topics include statistical models for time-varying narrowband and wideband channels, fading models for indoor and outdoor systems, macro- and microcellular system design, channel access and spectrum sharing using TDMA, FDMA, and CDMA, time-varying channel capacity and spectral efficiency, modulation and coding for wireless channels, antenna arrays, diversity combining and multiuser detection, dynamic channel allocation, and wireless network architectures and protocols. Instructor: Hassibi. Given in alternate years; not offered 2013–14. EE 163 ab. Communication Theory. 9 units (3-0-6); second, third terms. Prerequisites: EE 111; ACM/EE 116 or equivalent. Mathematical models of communication processes; signals and noise as random processes; sampling; modulation; spectral occupancy; intersymbol interference; synchronization; optimum demodulation and detection; signal-to-noise ratio and error probability in digital baseband and carrier communication systems; linear and adaptive equalization; maximum likelihood sequence estimation; multipath channels; parameter estimation; hypothesis testing; optical communication systems. Instructor: Ho. EE 164. Stochastic and Adaptive Signal Processing. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. Prerequisite: ACM/EE 116 or equivalent. Fundamentals of linear estimation theory are studied, with applications to stochastic and adaptive signal processing. Topics include deterministic and stochastic least-squares estimation, the innovations process, Wiener filtering and spectral factorization, state-space structure and Kalman filters, array and fast array algorithms, displacement structure and fast algorithms, robust estimation theory and LMS and RLS adaptive fields. Given in alternate years; offered 2013–14. Instructor: Hassibi. EE/BE/MedE 166. Optical Methods for Biomedical Imaging and Diagnosis. 9 units (3-1-5); second term. Prerequisite: EE 151 or equivalent. Topics include Fourier optics, scattering theories, shot noise limit, energy transitions associated with fluorescence, phosphorescence, and Raman emissions. Study of coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), second harmonic generation and near-field excitation. Scattering, absorption, fluorescence, and other optical properties of biological tissues and the changes in these properties during cancer progression, burn injury, etc. Specific optical technologies employed for biomedical research and clinical applications: optical coherence tomography, Raman spectroscopy, photon migration, acousto-optics (and opto-acoustics) imaging, two photon fluorescence microscopy, and second- and third-harmonic microscopy. Instructor: Yang. Given in alternate years; not offered 2013–14. EE 167. Data Compression. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. Prerequisite: EE/Ma 126 or instructor’s permission. An introduction to the basic results, both theoretical and practical, of data compression. Review of relevant background from information theory. Fixed model and adaptive Huffman and arithmetic codes. The Lempel-Ziv algorithm and its variants. Scalar and vector quantization, including the Lloyd-Max quantizers, and the generalized Lloyd algorithm. Transform coding. Karhuenen-Loeve and discrete cosine transforms. The bit allocation problem. Subband coding. Practical algorithms for image and video compression. Not offered 2013–14. EE/APh 180. Nanotechnology. 6 units (3-0-3); second term. This course will explore the techniques and applications of nanofabrication and miniaturization of devices to the smallest scale. It will be focused on the understanding of the technology of miniaturization, its history and present trends towards building devices and structures on the nanometer scale. Examples of applications of nanotechnology in the electronics, communications, data storage and sensing world will be described, and the underlying physics as well as limitations of the present technology will be discussed. Instructor: Scherer. CS/EE 181 abc. VLSI Design Laboratory. 12 units (3-6-3). For course description, see Computer Science. APh/EE 183. Physics of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Devices. 9 units (3-0-6). For course description, see Applied Physics. EE/BE/MedE 185. MEMS Technology and Devices. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. Prerequisite: APh/EE 9 ab, or instructor’s permission. Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) have been broadly used for biochemical, medical, RF, and lab-on-a-chip applications. This course will cover both MEMS technologies (e.g., micro- and nanofabrication) and devices. For example, MEMS technologies include anisotropic wet etching, RIE, deep RIE, micro/nano molding and advanced packaging. This course will also cover various MEMS devices used in microsensors and actuators. Examples will include pressure sensors, accelerometers, gyros, FR filters, digital mirrors, microfluidics, micro total-analysis system, biomedical implants, etc. Not offered 2013–14 CNS/Bi/EE/CS/NB 186. Vision: From Computational Theory to Neuronal Mechanisms. 12 units (4-4-4). For course description, see Computation and Neural Systems. EE/MedE 187. VLSI and ULSI Technology. 9 units (3-0-6); third term. Prerequisites: APh/EE 9 ab, EE/APh 180 or instructor’s permission. This course is designed to cover the state-of-the-art micro/nanotechnologies for the fabrication of ULSI including BJT, CMOS, and BiCMOS. Technologies include lithography, diffusion, ion implantation, oxidation, plasma deposition and etching, etc. Topics also include the use of chemistry, thermal dynamics, mechanics, and physics. Not offered 2013–14. BE/EE/MedE 189 ab. Design and Construction of Biodevices. 12 units (3-6-3) second term; 9 units (0-9-0) third term. Prerequisites: ACM 95 ab (for BE/EE 189 a); BE/EE 189 a (for BE/EE 189 b). For course description, see Bioengineering. ACM/CS/EE 218. Statistical Inference. 3-0-6; third term. Prerequisites: ACM 104 and ACM 116, or instructor’s permission. For course description, see Applied and Computational Mathematics. EE 226. Advanced Information and Coding Theory. 9 units (3-0-6); first term. A selection of topics in information theory and coding theory not normally covered in EE/Ma 126 ab or EE/Ma/CS 127. These topics include constrained noiseless codes, constructive coding theorems for erasure channels, density evolution, repeat-accumulate and related codes, and network coding. Not offered 2013–14 EE 243 abc. Quantum Electronics Seminar. 6 units (3-0-3); first, second, third terms. Advanced treatment of topics in the field of quantum electronics. Each weekly seminar consists of a review and discussion of results in the areas of quantum electronics and optoelectronics. Not offered 2013–14. CS/CNS/EE 253. Special Topics in Machine Learning. 9 units (3-3-3). For course description, see Computer Science. EE 291. Advanced Work in Electrical Engineering. Units to be arranged. Special problems relating to electrical engineering. Primarily for graduate students; students should consult with their advisers. |